Bayer delivers robust performance despite pandemic –foundation laid for future growth

Leverkusen, February 25, 2021 – The Bayer Group delivered robust operational performance in 2020. “Our operational strength in these turbulent times shows just how resilient our businesses are, even during the pandemic,” said Werner Baumann, Chairman of the Board of Management, on Thursday during the company’s Financial News Conference.

“We also used the past year to lay the foundation for future growth. We continued to drive forward our company’s transformation, advanced our product pipelines and invested in new technologies across all our business units,” Baumann said. For 2021, Bayer expects to achieve solid operational growth and stable earnings at constant currencies.

In the pharmaceuticals business alone, Bayer entered into more than 25 acquisition or collaboration agreements in 2020, with the largest acquisition being biotech company Asklepios BioPharmaceutical, Inc. (AskBio).

“With AskBio and BlueRock Therapeutics, we are building a platform for cell and gene therapy and are further consolidating our emerging leadership in this highly promising and fast-growing field,” explained Baumann. Bayer also systematically invested in innovation in other areas in 2020, such as personalized nutrition, with the company taking a majority stake in Care/of for its Consumer Health business, he said. In addition, Crop Science launched its new short-stature corn Vitala™ in Mexico as part of a pilot project, Baumann noted.

Since the beginning of the pandemic, Bayer has introduced extensive protective measures across all of its sites and has supported employees working from home.

“Our primary focus has of course always been on our responsibility toward our roughly 100,000 employees around the globe – and especially on providing what are in some cases essential products and services to customers, patients and farmers,” said Baumann, who also highlighted the commitment shown by the company’s workforce. “Our employees have displayed great initiative in doing what they can to help since the pandemic began,” he said. Bayer has also entered into an extensive partnership with biopharmaceutical company CureVac N.V., Germany, as part of efforts to combat

“Our initial focus is on supporting the clinical studies and approval process for CureVac’s vaccine,” Baumann explained. “At the same time, preparations are underway in Wuppertal and across our global production network so that we can help with vaccine manufacture, too, as soon as possible.”

Group sales level with prior year (Fx & portfolio adj.)

Group sales amounted to 41.400 billion euros in 2020. Adjusted for currency and portfolio effects (Fx & portfolio adj.), sales were level year on year (plus 0.6 percent). At 11.461 billion euros, EBITDA before special items also came in at the prior-year level (minus 0.1 percent).

Currency effects diminished sales by 1.941 billion euros and EBITDA before special items by 741 million euros. EBIT amounted to minus 16.169 billion euros (2019: plus 4.162 billion euros) after net special charges of 23.264 billion euros (2019: 2.813 billion euros). The special charges particularly comprised provisions for the agreements reached in the glyphosate, dicamba, PCB and Essure™ litigations.

Other special items mainly included impairment charges at Crop Science. Net income came in at minus 10.495 billion euros (2019: plus 4.091 billion euros), while core earnings per share from continuing operations were level with the prior year, at 6.39 euros (plus 0.2 percent).

“If you factor out the negative currency effects, core earnings per share would have been just under seven euros, which is almost the level we had been targeting before the pandemic spread,” Baumann said.

The Board of Management and Supervisory Board of Bayer AG will propose to the Annual Stockholders’ Meeting on April 27, 2021, a dividend payment for fiscal 2020 of 2.00 euros (fiscal 2019: 2.80 euros) per share entitled to the dividend. The company is thus upholding its dividend policy of distributing 30 to 40 percent of core earnings per share, with this year’s proposed dividend being at the lower end of this corridor, as previously announced. With 982.42 million shares entitled to the dividend, the total dividend payment would amount to 1.965 billion euros (fiscal 2019: 2.751 billion euros).

Free cash flow in 2020 was impacted by payments of just under 4 billion euros to resolve litigations and amounted to 1.343 billion euros (2019: 4.214 billion euros). Furthermore, Bayer reduced its net financial debt by 11.8 percent year on year to 30.041 billion euros. Thanks to strong operational cash generation, the company’s performance on these two indicators was better than projected in the revised outlook.

Crop Science registers higher sales (Fx & portfolio adj.) thanks to growth in Latin America and Asia/Pacific

In the agricultural business (Crop Science), Bayer increased sales by 1.3 percent
(Fx & portfolio adj.) to 18.840 billion euros.

The businesses in the Latin America and Asia/Pacific regions contributed to the increase, while declines occurred particularly in North America. Sales growth was particularly strong at Fungicides (Fx & portfolio adj. 8.5 percent) and Environmental Science (Fx & portfolio adj. 11.5 percent), with these businesses expanding in all regions. At Fungicides, Bayer posted sales gains in Latin America thanks to Fox Xpro™, which was launched in 2019. Sales also rose at Soybean Seed & Traits (Fx & portfolio adj. 2.3 percent).

Greater market penetration in Latin America had a positive effect, while business in North America saw lower selling prices and volumes, mainly due to increased competition. At Corn Seed & Traits, sales remained at the prior-year level (Fx & portfolio adj. minus 0.5 percent). In North America, shifts in demand into 2019 and 2021 had a negative impact, while sales moved ahead in all the other regions. Sales at Herbicides declined by 1.0 percent (Fx & portfolio adj.), particularly because the company lost registrations – in some cases only temporarily – in the Europe/Middle East/Africa and North America regions.

EBITDA before special items at Crop Science decreased by 3.8 percent to 4.536 billion euros. Business was particularly impacted by negative currency effects of 537 million euros, while the decline in sales in North America due to shifts in demand was also a key factor. By contrast, earnings benefited from the realization of cost synergies as the company progresses with the integration of the acquired business.

As regards the glyphosate litigation in the United States, the company announced in early February 2021 that it had reached an agreement with plaintiffs’ counsel on a class plan intended to manage and resolve future Roundup™ cases, and plaintiffs’ counsel filed a motion for preliminary approval of the class agreement. Both parties have worked diligently to address questions the court raised after their first settlement proposal for future Roundup™ cases last summer. The new agreement is now subject to court approval. The class plan is intended to be one part of a holistic solution designed to provide further closure to the Monsanto Roundup™ litigation. Approximately 90,000 current claims in the Roundup™ litigation overall are covered by settlement agreements, or did not meet the settlement program eligibility criteria. The company continues to negotiate with plaintiffs’ counsel to reach agreements in the remainder of current cases.

Pharmaceuticals grows earnings despite decline in sales

Sales at Pharmaceuticals declined by 1.5 percent (Fx & portfolio adj.) to 17.243 billion euros. The decrease was driven by global COVID-19 restrictions, which particularly in the first half of the year led to a reduced number of nonurgent treatments, especially in the ophthalmology and women’s health businesses. The situation in doctor’s offices and hospitals began to normalize at mid-year. In the radiology business, stricter hygiene measures slowed down patient processing throughout the year, leading to a decline in sales. In addition, the implementation of new tender procedures in China weighed heavily on sales of Glucobay™ and Avelox™.

Sales of the oral anticoagulant Xarelto™ increased by 12.4 percent (Fx & portfolio adj.) due to a marked increase in volumes in China as well as substantial growth in Europe. Stivarga™ was also among the products recording a substantial increase in sales
(Fx & portfolio adj. 18.6 percent), especially in China and the United States. The increase was partly due to this cancer drug’s oral administration, which enables treatment to continue outside of hospitals and doctor’s offices during the ongoing pandemic. Sales of the ophthalmology drug Eylea™ were level year on year (Fx & portfolio adj.
plus 0.2 percent), with the decline in business seen in the first half being offset in the latter
part of the year. The effects of the pandemic also weighed on business with the Mirena™/Kyleena™/Jaydess™ intrauterine systems (Fx & portfolio adj.
minus 8.7 percent) – due to a reduced number of procedures – and the cancer drug Xofigo™ (Fx & portfolio adj. minus 11.6 percent), which registered a particularly marked decline in the United States.

EBITDA before special items at Pharmaceuticals advanced by 2.6 percent to 6.016 billion euros, with stringent cost management and a milestone payment for the pulmonaryhypertension treatment Adempas™enabling earnings to grow despite the slight decline in sales and negative currency effects of 132 million euros.

Consumer Health posts growth (Fx & portfolio adj.) in all regions

Sales of self-care products (Consumer Health) increased by 5.2 percent (Fx & portfolio adj.) to 5.054 billion euros. The division’s performance was ahead of market, with all regions reporting growth. The greater focus on health and prevention in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic generated substantial growth in demand, especially in the Nutritionals category, which saw sales advance by 22.6 percent (Fx & portfolio adj.). Sales were also up in the Pain & Cardio, Dermatology and Digestive Health categories. At the same time, increased protection and hygiene measures led to a decline in sales of cough and cold products, with the Allergy & Cold category recording a decline of
4.1 percent (Fx & portfolio adj.).

EBITDA before special items at Consumer Health declined by 2.5 percent to 1.114 billion euros. Currency effects of 69 million euros, the absence of contributions from the businesses divested in 2019, and increased costs in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact. Earnings primarily benefited from the significant increase in sales (Fx & portfolio adj.) and the contributions from the efficiency program initiated in late 2018.

Progress made on sustainability targets

With regard to the non-financial Group targets, Bayer has reported on the progress made in 2020 toward meeting its ambitious sustainability goals for 2030. These are centered around the health of people and the planet, with a particular focus on climate protection. The company’s Sustainability Report, which was also published on Thursday, looks at these aspects in detail. Last year, Bayer drew up a roadmap based on the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals and took steps to implement it. The independent Science Based Targets initiative reviewed Bayer’s climate protection goals and confirmed that, by reducing its own emissions, the company is helping to limit global warming to 1.5°C and fulfill the Paris Climate Agreement. For example, Bayer has now switched to 100 percent green electricity in Spain and Mexico. As part of its efforts to protect the climate, the company has also initiated a pilot project in the United States and Brazil to help farmers adopt climate-friendly practices and utilize carbon capture and storage for their commercial benefit.

In line with its goals of reaching more people on low incomes, the company has launched the “Better Farms, Better Lives” program, for example. Under this program, the company has, for instance, provided more than 1.5 million smallholder farmers with access to modern crop protection products. In collaboration with The Challenge Initiative, Bayer is also providing support for solutions in the area of family planning and reproductive health for women and girls in Africa.

The establishment of the external Sustainability Council marked another important step. Furthermore, attainment of the sustainability targets has been incorporated into the long-term variable compensation of members of the Board of Management and other managers with a 20 percent weighting in the success factors starting in 2021. This highlights the importance of these targets for the company.

Outlook: Bayer targeting sales growth (Fx & portfolio adj.)

Bayer has issued the following currency-adjusted outlook for 2021: The company expects to post sales of approximately 42 billion to 43 billion euros, which corresponds to an increase of about 3 percent (Fx & portfolio adj.). The company expects to generate an EBITDA margin before special items of around 27 percent. This would correspond to EBITDA before special items of 11.2 billion to 11.5 billion euros. Bayer plans to generate core earnings per share of approximately 6.10 to 6.30 euros. Free cash flow is expected to come in at between minus 3 billion and minus 4 billion euros. This figure takes into account an anticipated negative impact of around 8 billion euros from payments to resolve litigations. The company also expects net financial debt to be approximately 36 billion to 37 billion euros as of December 31, 2021.

Based on the exchange rates on December 31, 2020, Bayer expects in 2021 to post sales of approximately 41 billion euros, an EBITDA margin before special items of approximately 26 percent and thus EBITDA before special items of between 10.5 billion and 10.8 billion euros, and core earnings per share of approximately 5.60 to 5.80 euros. On this basis, the company anticipates a free cash flow of minus 3 billion to minus 4 billion euros and net financial debt of 35 billion to 36 billion euros.

Notes to editors:

The following tables contain the key data for the Bayer Group and its divisions

for the full year and the fourth quarter of 2020.

The complete Annual Report 2020 is available on the internet at:

The Sustainability Report 2020 is also published on the internet at:

The speech given by Werner Baumann and Wolfgang Nickl to the media along with the charts will be available online from around 10 a.m. CET at:

Live broadcast of the news conference call from around 10 a.m. CET and recording available from around 2 p.m. CET at:

Additional information for investors and access – from around 2 p.m. CET – to the live broadcast of the investor conference call at:

Print-quality photos can be found online at:

Contact for media inquiries:

Christian Hartel, phone +49 214 3047686


Tino Andresen, phone +49 214 30-66048


Contact for investor inquiries:

Bayer Investor Relations Team, phone +49 214 30-72704


For more information go to

tia                   (2021-0039E)

Forward-Looking Statements

This release may contain forward-looking statements based on current assumptions and forecasts made by Bayer management. Various known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors could lead to material differences between the actual future results, financial situation, development or performance of the company and the estimates given here. These factors include those discussed in Bayer’s public reports which are available on the Bayer website at The company assumes no liability whatsoever to update these forward-looking statements or to conform them to future events or developments.

Bayer Group Key Data, Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2020

(Continuing operations – prior-year data are restated.)

Bayer Group (EUR million)Q4 2019Q4 2020Change (%)FY 2019FY 2020Change (%)
Sales10,7509,995-7.0 +2.6*43,54541,400-4.9 +0.6*
EBITDA before special items2,4762,392-3.411,47411,461-0.1
EBITDA margin before special items23.0%23.9%26.3%27.7%
Special items-92267-2,813-23,264
EBIT before special items1,3111,448+10.56,9757,095+1.7
Net income**1,414308-78.24,091-10,495
Earnings per share (EUR)**1.440.32-77.84.17-10.68
Core earnings per share (EUR)1.291.32+2.36.386.39+0.2
Free cash flow**1,692-5034,2141,343-68.1
Number of employees***103,82499,538-4.1103,82499,538-4.1
Crop Science (EUR million)Q4 2019Q4 2020Change (%)FY 2019FY 2020Change (%)
Sales4,6524,176-10.2 +4.3*19,83218,840-5.0 +1.3*
EBITDA before special items849594-30.04,7144,536-3.8
EBITDA margin before special items18.3%14.2%23.8%24.1%
Special items-59654-1,418-20,420
EBIT before special items12437-70.21,9321,791-7.3
Pharmaceuticals (EUR million)Q4 2019Q4 2020Change (%)FY 2019FY 2020Change (%)
Sales4,6824,476-4.4 +0.5*17,96217,243-4.0 -1.5*
EBITDA before special items1,4011,539+9.95,8616,016+2.6
EBITDA margin before special items29.9%34.4%32.6%34.9%
Special items-729-137-1,565
EBIT before special items1,1321,299+14.84,8235,032+4.3
Consumer Health (EUR million)Q4 2019Q4 2020Change (%)FY 2019FY 2020Change (%)
Sales1,3371,250-6.5 +3.1*5,4625,054-7.5 +5.2*
EBITDA before special items299258-13.71,1421,114-2.5
EBITDA margin before special items22.4%20.6%20.9%22.0%
Special items162174-16199
EBIT before special items219178-18.7810793-2.1

Sales changes on a currency- and portfolio-adjusted basis (Fx & portfolio adj.), EBIT(DA), special items, core earnings per share and free cash flow are not defined in the International Financial Reporting Standards and should therefore be regarded only as supplementary information. For the definition of these indicators, see the current annual report at

Online learning, new pedagogies (teaching methods) a must in Ph’s long term “brain gain”—education think-tank

February 7, 2021

Blended learning (online to support offline) has been warmly accepted by young learners in higher education institutions (HEI) and should be explored along with new pedagogies (teaching methods) that over the long term will result in Philippines’ “brain gain.”

   A study of education think-tank Philippine National University (PNU) indicated the use of technologies—internet-based learning and use of laptops-tablets —has been effectively delivering learning goals.

   However, more should be done to make local “brain gain” flourish.  Enhanced use of technology and new teaching methods that reach out to the financially underprivileged and minorities (indigenous groups), and aid to public school teachers should all be done.

   This, while Filipino teachers continue to find greener pastures abroad to be part of the “brain drain” phenomenon that has been on-going for decades.  

   “Blended learning, standard templates, class schedules, and online rules must be developed (Mancao et al., 2015),” according to the PNU report.

   “In any new or innovative strategy to be implemented, it must first be determined if there are enough resources.  Instructors must be properly trained, and students must be involved in ensuring that these pedagogies are properly applied.”

   PNU”s study led by Dr. Edna Luz Raymundo-Abulon is a compilation of 89 published researches in recognized refereed scientific journals  and 38 research reported to the Educational Policy Research and Development Center.  The researches were authored by PNU teaching professionals and conducted from 2010 to 2020.

   The PNU teacher-researchers are among those that instruct the country’s learners in grade school, high school, college (HEIs), and school teaching leaders and administrators.  They are also the teachers in more difficult subjects under STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, and Mathematics).

   The use of technology in (via blended modality) in higher education has been proven to be effective.  This was especially true for teaching Learning Management Systems—a software for administering of educational or training programs (Balagtas et al. 2018).

  “The use of low-cost tablets were implemented in a Teacher Education Institution.  It was piloted for a semester.  It was found out that learning became enjoyable with the tablet because of the many useful apps that could optimize learning (Cacho, 2017).

   Technology can also be used to manage a university’s research – such as the one established in PNU to compile all its researchers as reference for future teachers and leaders.

   “A web-based research portal that was developed and provided a fast, systematic, and organized research management system of a university’s research records and activities (Morales et al., 2017).”

   Yet, the PNU studies indicated Philippine schools have to invest more in facilities or equipment, trained teachers, graduate education, and efficient systems.

   As the national government has been zeroing in on improved education on STEAM courses among college students, recognizing STEAM expertise is critical in innovations and economic development, a PNU research found out that STEAM education in the country is apparently “archaic”.

   “A newly developed pedagogical model (for STEAM subjects) that focuses on learning as learner-empowerment and a life-long learning process is much needed (Anito & Morales, 2019).”

Critical thinking

   There are essential skills that Filipino teachers themselves should be honed in order to be even more effective teachers.  Studies showed teacher education students recorded below average scores on critical thinking (Obias, 2015) and metalinguistic knowledge (Munalim & Raymundo, 2014) are quite alarming.

   “Being in a profession where the primary task is to impart, evaluate, and create new knowledge, critical thinking is a very important characteristic a teacher must have. Likewise, metalinguistic knowledge is very important among English majors who are expected to teach English grammar to their students,” stressed Abulon.

   The report is part of PNU’s mandate under Republic Act 9647, designating PNU as the country’s  National Center for Teacher Education (NCTE).  It makes PNU a center  on innovations and alternative systems and their application to teacher training and development.

   Interestingly, many development policies have to be put in place to improve the public school system’s operations in order to make the teaching profession not only more effective but dignified.   

   A mentoring program for beginning teachers is one of these. Training of new methods for teachers to learn to teach large classes is another.  Apparently, some pedagogies are more effective in teaching large classes –  such  as Lakbay Diwa, peer-team teaching, use of video clips, energizers, and debates.

   “Whereby large classes are inevitable, new, innovative, and effective pedagogies must be researched on (Reyes & Dumanhug, 2015).”

   While these pedagogical innovations show potential, more research are required in terms of standardizing these methods, the extent of their effectiveness, and whether it would be feasible to implement these in certain schools or laboratories.

   “Pedagogies that have to be taught to teachers include include the IDEA (inclusion of prior kfnowledge, dissection of concepts, experiential episodes, and authentic assessment) model for professional education (Sigua, Tuga, Bautista, & Aggarao, 2014) .

   Another excellent teaching technique is POE (predict-observe-explain) for science education (Gernale, Arañes, & Duad, 2015).

Graduate studies

   Teachers likewise have to be helped in completing graduate studies (Rungduin & Miranda 2018) while working as teachers. For they face many difficulties—finances, duties at home or in the family, time management—that hinder graduate education.

   Future school administrators-leader should also be developed.

    “The preferred type of school leader is one who is concerned about the professional growth of teachers and knowledgeable in the use of data in improving leadership practices (Ancho 2010).”  

  Teachers need professional development on content knowledge and pedagogy along the following strands: content knowledge and pedagogy, positive use of ICT or information communication technology, strategies for developing critical and creative thinking, higher order skills, research-based knowledge and principles of teaching and learning; personal development training is also needed (Guiab, Ganal & Sario 2017).

Online Learning. Source FIPP

   These are other notable researches of PNU in the last 10-11 years:

1. Internationalization of teacher education will uplift Philippines’ teaching-learning standards. One study led to the development of a tool consists of a rubric of indicators of internationalization which Philippine TEIs may use to assess their current standing in this aspect of development compared to other countries’ (Balagtas, Papango, Reyes, Ubiña, & Atweh, 2012).

2.  Schools should review the cost-sharing and cost-recovery issues of its tuition fee policies to determine its efficiency and sustainability (Ferrer, Hermosisima, & Abulencia, 2014). Sometimes, a moderate increase in schools’ tuition fees result in tremendous improvement in operations.

3. How teacher education program is managed and the environment provided to teachers matter in their performance.   

   Administrators and principals should have a well-defined management plan to improve or sustain their school climate and strengthen teachers’ organization commitment (Simbre and Ancho (2019). Principals or school heads must be trained in management. 

   It is not enough that they are good teachers.  Their positions require additional skills. TEIs must consider these in their graduate programs.

4.  The university canteen must be aware of the nutritional needs of the students. Policies with regard to providing only healthy foods must be made (Mancao et al., 2014).

5.  Disaster education programs must be part of the curriculum. Programs that aim to develop competencies of students, faculty members, and staff in dealing with disasters must be implemented (Garcia et al., 2015).

6.  “The issue of teachers leaving the Philippines to find work abroad is nothing new. Nevertheless, it would be good to pay attention to their experiences (abroad) in order to address possible brain drain in the country,” said ABulon. 

   Arviola et al. (2019) found that teachers leave mainly due to low wages in the Philippines and difficulty of acquiring teaching plantilla.   When provided enough financial and career support, they are still willing to get reintegrated in the teaching profession in the Philippines (Sario 2019).

7.  To improve higher education curriculum, it is important to benchmark, such as demonstrated in the study by Ganal (2017) with other countries.

8. Exploring the outcomes of curriculum for indigenous groups abroad (such as one conducted in Canada) may be useful for the country to follow as model its IP groups.

   The University of Ottawa’s curriculum for indigenous groups is now useful in the development of a local IP education program (Ganal, 2017)

   Another study on IP education indicated IP students feel more discriminated when placed in a separate section.  However, this system also showed strength in handling bulling of minorities.

   Policies should also take into account not just the problems and challenges but also the strengths of indigenous people students (e.g., Reyes, 2018).

9. The importance of addressing issues related to gender is also salient in research in higher education.  Gender education and programs should be included in higher education curriculum.   

   Valencia and Reyes (2018) disclosed that the process of transformative methodology in women-teacher studies showed the value that many women have contributed to world events and positive developments.

   Rungduin (2019) explored the life stories of women whose lives were changed through their participation in university-designated extension programs.  These women became advocates of change in terms of empowerment.  And this led to their male partners seeing them as equals.

10. It is important to find out how to better facilitate learning for students living in poverty.

   A model that emphasizes the need for teachers to adapt for low income students without forgetting or sacrificing the needs for students who are not economically disadvantages was proposed.

  “A context-sensitive and responsive (CSR) Model of Pedagogical Strategies for Poor Students was developed (Reyes, Rungduin, David & Bayten 2018).”

11. Since there is minority population—the LGBT (lesbians and gays) — whose importance in national skills cannot be undervalued, a study was also conducted to uncover the factors related to the emergence of sexual orientation from a Filipino perspective. (Arcilla 2019)

   “There could be a general sexual identity realization process that LGBT individuals go through—from awareness of difference from gender-typical peers, to self-consciousness and adoption of preferred sexual identity.

13.   Policies must be developed with regard to ensuring that the curriculum is updated and responsive to the current needs of the learners, and that archaic ways which no longer serve their purpose must not be retained (e.g., Anito & Morales, 2019). This could also be done by making sure that results or information on researches on the curriculum are well distributed.

It’s no surprise online learning is on the rise. Source- Instructure

16. Studies revealed that tertiary students have adapted certain learning modes– sensing, sequential, visual, and reflective type of learners (Oxiño, 2010). This information can be useful in determining what teaching-learning approaches can be used for them.

17.    Sabate (2019) assessed middle-level managers of SUCs (state universities and colleges) found Filipino value-bound management functions.  These are important school functions leaders have to the skills to implement– educational leadership for school development, curriculum management for student learning, school environment, staff management, resource management, and community building.

   “This information provides insight as to what educational managers value and their priorities for the development of the higher education sector.”

18. Scholarships and financial assistance is a way universities can provide help in educating deserving but financially challenged students.  Therefore, they should be properly administered.

19.  The library is an important part of knowledge management in schools.  Antonio et al. (2019) conducted an assessment of a university library and identified students’ needs.

   “There is a need for the university library to embark on new programs, activities, and services that would enhance user satisfaction and increase the frequency of visits to the library.”

   The Library and Information Science Programs should also improve (Antonio and Porteza 2017).  There is a need to improve the marketing of such program, encourage its graduates to take licensure exams for teachers, and enhance the ICT and writing skills of its

students. Likewise, the facilities should  be enhanced.

20.  There are also studies focusing on teachers’ financial status (Ferrer, 2017; 2018). These show the poor financial status of teachers.

   Being in debt is a common challenge to them as most teachers belong to the lowest teacher rank with insufficient earning capability and the lack of financial literacy. Another study concerns the common malpractices in the educational system. These include corruption and misconduct  Ancho et al. (2019) and Ferrer (2018).

   Salary grades (Ferrer, 2017; 2018) need to be reviewed since there is a call for uplifting the standards and qualifications of teachers. Their compensation must be commensurate to the roles and expectations put upon them. 

21.   The role of the university encompasses that of research and education but should also involve active participation in making positive change in the community.

   Osborne et al. (2019) explored the relationship between rhetoric engagement and resilience  particularly of migrants and refugees in universities in the Philippines and Italy.  The research provides insights regarding the community engagement role of universities.  (Melody Mendoza Aguiba)