Malunggay, dilis help fight malnutrition, SLSU developed highly marketable Malunggay Powder and Dilis Flour

September 28, 2020

Amid the threats of Covid-19, malunggay and ‘dilis’ is turning out to be a “go to” for nutrition as the Southern Luzon State University (SLSU) has developed a highly marketable Malunggay Powder and Dilis Flour (MPDF).

   The SLSU in Tagkawayan, Quezon has developed the MPDF which is now a product deemed as highly marketable under the Technology and Investment Profiles (TIP) monograph series published by Southeast Asian Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA).  The project is funded by the Bureau of Agriculture Research (BAR).

   Results showed that the malunggay products have met the parameters for each tool to be identified as a financially viable investment project.

   The SEARCA- feasibility study of MPDF used cash flow analysis, net present value, benefit-cost ratio, and financial internal rate return.

   SEARCA Director Glenn M. Gregorio said that SEARCA is now actively promoting technology-based innovations among local enterprises.  This is under SEARCA’s 11th Five-Year Plan focused on Accelerating Transformation Though Agricultural Innovation (ATTAIN) program.

   The experts said MPDF technology can be used as food ingredient in many dishes and as flavoring to various food delicacies including ham, longganisa, tapa, sausage, pork-fish siomai, kropek, macaroni soup, porridge, polvoron, squash cake, ensaymada, pizza pie, toge, tart, and hotcake, among others. With this, it aims to increase home consumption of inexpensive yet highly nutritious food.

   The project was led by Dorris N. Gatus, project leader;  Veronica Aurea A. Rufo, project coordinator; and Nemia C. Pelayo, technical adviser.

   It also targets to create livelihood opportunities for residents and non-residents of Tagkawayan, Quezon, Philippines

   The authors of the TIP said that the technology’s market and use extends from feeding programs of school children, bakers from five municipalities in Quezon Province with high incidence of malnutrition (i.e., Tiaong, Catanuan, Dolores, Quezon, and Mulanay), and local restaurants.

   Its target consumers include other institutional buyers (e.g., bakeshops, eateries, restaurants, hotel establishments, and hospitals); entrepreneurs who are engaged in food processing business enterprises; households, particularly those with lactating mothers and malnourished children; vegetarians, especially those suffering from anemia; and government agencies implementing feeding programs.

   Many times richer in vitamin-C, malunggay (Moringa oleifera) is being touted as “better than cure” as it may help prevent many other diseases.  It has been known that fresh malunggay leaves haves seven times the vitamin C of orange, 4 times the vitamin A of carrots, and 4 times the calcium of milk.

   This popular vegetable is part of the Filipino diet for generations.  ‘Tinolang manok’, chicken cooked in papaya will not be complete without malunggay leaves.  For Ilocanos, the leaves of the malunggay and its pods are perfect when cooked with other vegetables and fish.  Those who know this often has a malunggay tree beside their house.    

   Some are now using malunggay powder to fortify the all-time favorite pan de sal. Malunggay’s use has been promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a low-cost health enhancer in poor countries around the globe.

   Millions of Filipinos, particularly children, are suffering from undernourishment and malnutrition not just because of hunger and poverty, but also because of poor diet and eating habits.  Access to nutritious food has also been identified as the reason for this alarming health concern.

   Meanwhile, dilis or Philippine anchovy, more known in its dried fish form, is abundant in the market.  While they are quite popular among the older generation, they are not a hit to the young ones.

   Like malunggay, dilis—a small, common saltwater forage fish—has been identified as rich in protein and other minerals and vitamins with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Specifically, anchovies are a good source of minerals, including calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and sodium. Moreover, anchovies are rich in vitamins such as B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, and B12), vitamins A, C, E, and K.

   The SEARCA-published monograph on technology of malunggay products may be downloaded for free from the SEARCA website:  


   Dilis, according to BAR, paper, can is a flavouring for “sauces, salad dressings, pasta, and pizza.”  It is also a snack for the native Filipino.

   SLSU Professor Doris Gatus said sensory analysis and consumer acceptability studies have already been conducted for the MPDF. The product has also been tested in

 school feeding activities to supplement children’s nutritional requirement and intake.

    Recommended ratio for the product mix (maluggay to dilis) is 1:1, 3:1, and 3:2 (depending on the use)

   “One kilogram of fresh malunggay leaves can produce 300g malunggay-powder and 1kg. dilis (utilizing the fleshy part) can likewise produce 100g dilis powder,” said Gatus.

   Through the program,  Filipinos in rural areas are hoped to improve their productivity and while increasing home consumption of  the highly-nutritious yet inexpensive MPDF.

   “For every 100 grams of dilis flour fortified with malunggaypowder, the following nutritional values can be achieved: carbohydrates (3 percent), protein (5 percent), vitamin A (40 percent), vitamin C (2 percent), calcium (40 percent), and iron 10 (percent),” said Gatus.

47 million women lose access to contraception due to Covid 19 restrictions, 7 million unplanned pregnancies seen-UN

World Contraception Day 2020:

Campaign calls for women to prioritize family planning, health despite COVID-19
·   COVID-19 is posing an urgent threat to women’s health and empowerment by limiting access to family planning and healthcare services.

#HerHero campaign rallies key stakeholders across Asia Pacific to call for a wider support network of everyday heroes to champion and help women overcome the barriers in prioritizing their health

Representatives from the Population Council, the National Population & Family Planning Board of Indonesia (BKKBN), the Commission on Population and Development of the Philippines (POPCOM), the Federation of Obstetric Gynecological Societies of India (FOGSI), United Women Singapore (UWS), the Garden of Hope Foundation Taiwan, Doctor Anywhere and Bayer jointly pledged their commitment to empower women in making informed choices about family planning and their health  

September 25, 2020 – This World Contraception Day, healthcare professionals, policymakers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and women influencers in Asia Pacific rally together to call for women to prioritize their health and their family planning needs, even during the pandemic. With COVID-19 posing an urgent threat to women’s health and ability to plan their families, Bayer today launched the #HerHero campaign to support women in taking action to prioritize their health and take charge of their lives. Women’s influencers and representatives from key organizations in Asia Pacific came together today at the #HerHero Virtual Forum on Health, Empowerment and Progress and jointly pledged their commitment to be ‘HerHeroes’, those who support and empower women in their communities to help them make informed choices. They also called for wider public support to join in the pledge and give voice to women’s health needs and empowerment.

The #HerHero virtual forum, organized by Bayer in collaboration with the Population Council, Doctor Anywhere, UWS and media partner Clozette, also marks the 60th anniversary of the contraceptive pill. It was attended by women’s advocates and family planning leaders including Dr. Ashish Bajracharya, Deputy Director, Country Strategy & Regional Representative, South & East Asia, Population Council, Dr. (H.C.) dr. Hasto Wardoyo, Sp.OG(K), Chairperson, BKKBN, Usec. Juan Antonio Perez III, Executive Director, POPCOM, Dr. Shobha Gudi, Chairperson of the Family Welfare Committee, FOGSI, Ms. Georgette Tan, President, UWS and Ms. Ping Rong Chen, representative of the Garden of Hope Foundation Taiwan.

World Contraception Day

Photo Credit: PharmaTimes

Despite the progress made in empowering women’s lives over the last 60 years, barriers still exist today, made worse by the current pandemic. Many women worldwide are losing access to health and family planning services due to COVID-19 restrictions, and are putting off face-to-face medical consultations for seeking professional advice due to fear of contracting the virus. The UN projects that more than 47 million women could lose access to contraception, leading to 7 million unplanned pregnancies in the coming months[1]. These have lifelong health and socio-economic impact on women and their families.

“As the world responds to the COVID-19 crisis, women’s reproductive health and rights must be carefully safeguarded. We must continue to collaborate, innovate and work to ensure women have access to modern contraception and resources that enable them to make informed decisions about their futures,” said Ashish Bajracharya, Ph.D., Deputy Director, Country Strategy & Regional Representative, South & East Asia, Population Council.

Women’s health and family planning topics are not openly discussed in Asia, and women can find it hard to make informed decisions. The #HerHero campaign celebrates the everyday heroes – such as family, friends, pharmacists and doctors – who support women with a safe space to talk about such topics, and calls for the wider public to commit to also being ‘HerHero’ to the women in their networks. Amid the pandemic, digital platforms offer a new way for women to reach out to their heroes. Telemedicine is fast becoming a safe and convenient option for seeking medical consults on health and family planning matters, especially for individuals with COVID-19 safety concerns. The strong uptake of telemedicine in Asia Pacific in the recent months is here to stay, with consumers expecting to make greater use of digital health services in the next five years[2].

“Our commitment to women’s health drives us to empower women to make informed decisions about their health and family planning, with our innovative contraceptive portfolio and digital health initiatives targeted at improving contraception education,” said Catherine Donovan, Head of Medical Affairs, Bayer Pharmaceuticals Division Asia Pacific. “Our new #HerHero campaign, which also commemorates 60 years since the invention of the contraceptive pill, underscores our efforts to safeguard and prioritize women’s health and needs, even during the pandemic. By sparking conversations about these issues and celebrating the people that empower women each day, we hope to rally support for women in caring for their health.”

Bayer is constantly innovating to find new ways to engage everyday women in taking control of their lives. By developing chatbots in Asian countries with a high unmet need in family planning education, and promoting engagement with the public on social media platforms, Bayer aims to bridge knowledge gaps by providing women easier access to reliable information on contraceptive options and reproductive health.

Across Asia Pacific, Bayer has been collaborating with governments and organizations to introduce initiatives that promote greater contraception awareness and education. This include its partnerships with the BKKBN in Indonesia, the POPCOM in the Philippines, the Department of Health’s Bureau of Reproductive Health in Thailand, and the Family Planning and Women’s Union (FPWU) and Government Office of Family Planning (GOPFP) in Vietnam. With the goal of achieving its “Health for all, Hunger for none” vision, Bayer will continue to invest in multi-stakeholder aid programs, with the ultimate goal of providing 100 million women in low- and middle-income countries with access to modern contraception methods by 2030.

  1. United Nations Population Fund. 28 April 2020. Press release: New UNFPA projections predict calamitous impact on women’s health as COVID-19 pandemic continues. Available at: (Last accessed: 20 September 2020)


Ph sends mission to Germany to train amateur agripreneurs on crop protection safe use, aid in boosting food production, security

September 17, 2020 – More and more students taking up agriculture are encouraged to orient farmers on the safe use of crop protection products. Bayer Philippines had recently launched its first ever virtual safe use ambassador conference for the purpose of increasing farmer awareness and adoption of the proper use of agricultural chemicals for their own safety.

The online conference brought together more than 2,000 various stakeholders from 14 countries, including university scientists, researches, students, regulatory officials, ministries, and farmers. Students from Philippine universities and colleges invited were University of the Philippines – Los Baños, Central Luzon State University, Mindanao State University, and others who were part of the previous training programs.

Since 2017, the Bayer Safe Use Ambassador program has trained more than 500 university and college students in the Philippines on how crop protection products should be used in a safe & sustainable manner. The session includes both a classroom and field demonstration portion so that students may see for themselves the right way of applying these products to protect both the farmer and the crops. Aside from the Philippines, the program is also being implemented in other countries around the world, including Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China, Vietnam, Egypt, Jordan, Turkey, Brazil, and Peru.

Jane Mae Navasquez, seated second from left, from Mindanao State University in her visit to Bayer Crop Science headquarters in Monheim, Germany as one of the competition winners

“By laying down the foundation of farm safety among young students, we can be assured that the next generation of farmers will embrace the need for safety & product stewardship,” said Iiinas Ivan Lao, country commercial lead for Bayer Crop Science. “This would help farming become more enticing to more Filipinos and promote it as a safe & sustainable means of livelihood.”

In a survey conducted with university scientists and researchers before the conference, most responses confirmed our understanding that the industry along with governments, academia, and farming communities play a key role in ensuring safe use of crop protection products.

To encourage the students to teach farmers on safe use of agriculture products, Bayer holds an annual competition wherein students can send in their essay and videos on their experience in training farmers. Those selected are invited to Bayer’s agriculture headquarters in Monheim, Germany and engage with leaders and stakeholders on how safe use programs can be further enhanced in all countries.

Jane Mae Navasquez sharing her views during the virtual conference on why farmers should get into safe use trainings when applying crop protection products in their livelihood

Jane Mae Navasquez, a third year agriculture student from Mindanao State University, was one of the competition winners and the first coming from the Philippines. She was one of the participants in the safe use ambassador training sessions held by Bayer and became inspired to help farmers in her town. Navasquez was one of the speakers during the virtual conference.

“With my eagerness to know more about the various aspects of agriculture and help farmers in return motivated me to join the competition,” said Navasquez. “It was a great opportunity for me as a Filipino student to impart these learnings to our Filipino farmers.”

Navasquez felt the responsibility to share her newly gained information about safe use of crop protection products. She was worried that traditional farmers still do not adopt the recommended practices, which included wearing personal protective equipment (PPEs), and the potential negative impact on their health.

Representatives of the Fertilizer & Pesticide Authority (FPA) in Region 12 participated in the Bayer Safe Use Ambassador virtual conference

The students and farmers establish an emotional relationship beyond that achievable by any institution. Bayer intends to extend the program to more countries in order to expand the outreach of safe use of these agricultural products.

“There is still a long way to go when you talk about knowledge transfer to farmers on the right way to use crop protection products,” added Lao. “However, we believe that we should do it both ways—teaching farmers through our regular engagement activities and building that foundation among future farmers who will produce food for us in the succeeding years.” Bryan Rivera

POPCOM sees family planning education, more options as vital to counter unplanned pregnancies during pandemic

September 12, 2020

The Commission on Population and Development (POPCOM) recently launched its new Facebook live series aimed at reaching out to more Filipinos and communicate the importance of family planning during the current crisis.

Entitled “Usap Tayo sa Family Planning,” the show features Usec. Juan Antonio Perez III, POPCOM Executive Director and called “Doc Jeepy”.

“During this pandemic, it is still very difficult to go to the barangays for a face to face discussion and talk about family planning,” said Usec. Perez. “We realize the need to be more creative in tapping other channels such as social media so that we can inform more Filipinos on family planning and health to uplift their well-being.”

In support of POPCOM’s thrust on family planning education, Bayer has partnered with the government organization through its own platform, Ask Mara PH. Ask Mara is a social media channel that provides awareness on different contraceptive options for modern Filipino women. Since its launch in October 2019, Ask Mara PH has been an instrumental sdsyytool in sharing such relevant information. Anyone with internet connection can easily access Ask Mara through its Facebook page and even get questions answered instantly through the chatbot feature in Messenger.

For many decades, Bayer has dedicated itself to providing reliable family planning to women throughout the world, and thus reducing the number of unplanned pregnancies. Part of this approach involves providing education on contraceptive methods and principles. The company is involved in numerous educational initiatives to provide consumers with information, including World Contraception Day and the associated “Your Life” campaign. “Your Life” is aimed at 13- to 25-year-olds and is supported by a host of non-profit organizations. It is also part of the commitments listed under the UN movement “Every Women Every Child” (EWEC). Together with its partners, Bayer launched the annual highlight of the campaign, World Contraception Day, in 2007, which is celebrated around the world on September 26 every year.

“While educating Filipinos on family planning, we highlight the different contraceptive options available that would suit their needs,” added Usec. Perez. “This includes the contraceptive pill, which has been around for 60 years to support women’s health.”

Almost six decades ago, the first contraceptive pill enabled women to gain control over their own bodies at a previously unprecedented level. For the first time, they were able to prevent pregnancy by taking a hormonal preparation. This revolutionary method of family planning became a turning-point for society and a key driver of emancipation. The UN estimates that today 151 million women all over the world aged between 15 and 49 use the pill as their contraceptive method of choice.

“The pill was the first time that women had been able to take control of major life decisions, especially family planning,” said Dr. May Pagunsan, Country Medical Director for Bayer Philippines.

From a 2018 published report on abortion worldwide entitled “Uneven Progress and Unequal Access,” there were around 99 million unplanned pregnancies between 2010 and 2014, over half of which (56 percent) ended in abortion. In another study which tracked unintended pregnancy and its outcomes from 1990 to 2014, experts estimate that around 44 percent of all pregnancies are unplanned; this rises by 20 percentage points in developing economic countries compared to developed countries (65 percent compared to 45 percent). 

According to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), there are 214,000 unplanned pregnancies projected this year. For 2021, the number of unplanned pregnancies will increase to 740,000 unplanned pregnancies, almost a 50% increase. Moreover, three out of every 10 pregnancies are unplanned or unintended, based on a Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) survey. The UNFPA also reported that even if some 214 million women worldwide want to avoid pregnancy, they risk getting pregnant. This is due to lack of access to family planning methods or absence of support from partners and communities. Similarly, the National Demographic and Health Survey shows that 9% women aged 15-19 have begun childbearing and 17% of women aged 15-49 want to practice family planning but do not have access to said methods. This hinders women to reach their full potential to contribute more for themselves and their families.

“Numbers of unplanned pregnancies are still high here in the Philippines,” added Dr. Pagunsan. “Bayer is seeking to change this by providing a broad range of different contraceptive products and methods, strengthening and supporting women in the life decisions they take.”

In addition to its educational activities, Bayer continues to invest in multi-stakeholder aid programs and has set a new goal to provide 100 million women in low- and middle-income countries with access to modern contraception methods by 2030.

“Ultimately, one of our objectives at POPCOM is to reduce the level of poverty in the country by engaging with women and men so that more Filipino families to take control of their health and capability to support children,” said Usec. Perez. “If there are more family planning options that are affordable, acceptable and accessible, it will be easier for families to manage what they can and enhance their standard of living.” End

About Bayer

Bayer is a global enterprise with core competencies in the life science fields of health care and nutrition. Its products and services are designed to benefit people by supporting efforts to overcome the major challenges presented by a growing and aging global population. At the same time, the Group aims to increase its earning power and create value through innovation and growth. Bayer is committed to the principles of sustainable development, and the Bayer brand stands for trust, reliability and quality throughout the world. In fiscal 2019, the Group employed around 104,000 people and had sales of 43.5 billion euros. Capital expenditures amounted to 2.9 billion euros, R&D expenses to 5.3 billion euros. For more information, go to

Bayer, Jardine seals partnership to serve more farmers, enhance food security through wider crop protection distribution

September 11, 2020

Bayer Crop Science (BCS), Jardine Distribution Inc. (JDI) and its subsidiary Taipan Brand Farm Inc. (Taipan) have agreed on a milestone partnership for distribution of selected Bayer brand crop protection products to increase farmer accessibility to these agricultural inputs.

In a joint letter to its distribution channels, the companies mentioned that despite ongoing challenges facing the agriculture sector, they believe that farmers should continue to receive support from all stakeholders as they are vital for our country’s food security and resiliency efforts.

Through the new collaboration, JDI will be handling marketing, distribution, and demand creation initiatives for Bayer’s Hedonal herbicide brand. Meanwhile, Taipan will distribute Confidor, Previcur N, Hoestick, and Bayfolan crop protection brands.

“We are excited with this new partnership between Bayer and Jardine, along with Taipan, given that both are reputable in agriculture and trusted by millions of Filipino farmers,” said Iiinas Ivan Lao, Country Commercial Lead for BCS. “This will allow us to focus on our core products so that we can better serve our farmers with the right technologies and recommendations.”

“Our team is looking forward to add on Bayer’s products in our wide portfolio offering to farmers,” said Edwin Hernandez, President for both JDI and Taipan. “We have an established channel network that would support product access for our farmers so that they could boost their yield & profitability.”

The companies emphasized that they are confident that the new partnership would benefit its distribution channels and would increase patronage from farmers who rely on the crop protection solutions included in the deal.

About Jardine Distribution

Jardine Distribution, Inc. is a wholesale distributor of various agricultural products, applied construction chemicals and household consumer items. Jardine is a member company of the Jardine Matheson Group and works within the framework of Jardine Engineering Corporation, a company headquartered in Hong Kong and operates throughout Asia.

About Taipan Brand Farm

Taipan Brand Farm, Inc. is a member of the Jardine Distribution family of companies. Product distribution through Taipan Brand Farm is accomplished through a wide network of authorized distributors and dealers nationwide, and market coverage is achieved via a highly trained sales force and technical support team.

About Bayer

Bayer is a global enterprise with core competencies in the life science fields of health care and nutrition. Its products and services are designed to benefit people by supporting efforts to overcome the major challenges presented by a growing and aging global population. At the same time, the Group aims to increase its earning power and create value through innovation and growth. Bayer is committed to the principles of sustainable development, and the Bayer brand stands for trust, reliability and quality throughout the world. In fiscal 2019, the Group employed around 104,000 people and had sales of 43.5 billion euros. Capital expenditures amounted to 2.9 billion euros, R&D expenses to 5.3 billion euros. For more information, go to

Growth Publishing 0929-715-8669, 0917-102-6734, email,

Wheat imports feared to cause downward spiral on the already depressed corn price of P12 per kilo; govt urged to invest in storage, buy farmers’ produce

September 1, 2020

Domestic corn price is feared to go through a downward spiral from the already depressed P12 per kilo due to feed wheat imports coinciding with the harvest, compelling corn farmers to press government to show political will by prohibiting import arrival at harvest.

   Corn farmers have also challenged government to address perennial poverty among corn farmers by intervening in putting up corn storage facilities.  The lack of such storage facilities compel Filipino farmers to give in to low prices, or their produce just spoils. This renders farmers helpless at the mercy of traders trying to haggle for bargain prices.

      The Philippine Maize Federation Inc. (Philmaize) and the Philippine Chamber of Agriculture and Food Inc. (PCAFI) have denounced that Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Plant Industry (DA-BPI) allowed feed wheat import arrival during this current corn harvest.

   Feed millers’ recent importation of a reported 81,200 metric tons (MT) of feed wheat is unfortunately bringing price further down to P12 per kilo or below. This is against expected farmgate of say P15 per kilo and above.  Feed wheat is a usual cheaper substitute to corn.

   “Imports of feed wheat accounts for only 1 to 2% of corn production.  But still, their effect on pushing down local corn price is significant. It becomes worse as the NFA (National Food Authority) no longer supports corn price as it now has a different mandate due to the RTL,” said PMFI President Roger V. Navarro.

   NFA is no longer buying corn from farmers even as its function has been limited by the Rice Tarrification Law implemented since 2018-2019.

   PCAFI President Danilo V. Fausto said government must continue its price support function for corn even especially amid the pandemic.

   “Government should immediately initiate aprogram to buy the corn being harvested at a viable price from the farmers for storage as buffer stock to support future demand during non-harvest season,” said Fausto.

   State competition-policing agency Philippine Competition Commission (PCC) has just released a study showing local corn price is significantly adversely affected  by feed wheat imports.

   “The Philippines imports feed wheat every month and therefore, when local corn harvest coincides with the arrival of feed wheat, the price of local corn is usually depressed, “ according to the study commissioned by PCC.

   “This is a more pronounced during the third quarter when the Philippines has the big bulk of local harvest and the quality of which is affected by lack of mechanical dryers.”

   Navarro said DA-BPI which issues import permits and Sanitary and Phytosanitary Import Clearance (SPICS) should have known beforehand of this import arrival.

   “Feed wheat imports can arrive year-round because they have storage facilities from their origin. But they are timing arrivals even during the corn harvest just to take advantage of lower prices,” said Navarro.

   Philippines’ feed wheat imports come from Australia, Bulgaria, United States, Canada, India, Russia, Brazil, European Union, and Black Sea.

   With the Bayanihan 2 program intended to uplift Filipinos’ livelihood, the government should immediately intervene in supporting corn price and put up storage. This is along with providing technology and funding to counter the highly devastating Fall armyworm, Fausto said.

   “Corn is one of our major crops where millions of our farmers depend on for their livelihood. It represents around 10% of total crop production.  Government should protect our corn farmers especially during this time of crisis to allow them to survive. Importation of corn substitutes such as feed wheat should be regulated when corn is being harvested,” said Fausto.

    A PCC-commissioned study carried out by the Asian Social Project Services INc. (ASPSI) came up with this conclusion:

  • Local farm gate prices of corn go down even if international market prices might be high; this is primarily due to the lack of storage capacity when import delivery (corn and/or feed wheat) coincides with local harvest
    • Lower price (and income) dampens the interest and capacity of farmers to plant the next season hence feed millers have to buy high the next time around because of reduced local supply
    • This explains the boom and bust cycle in the Philippine yellow corn industry; but with more feed wheat imports, yellow corn farm gate prices might continue to be in a bust. Melody Mendoza Aguiba

ATTACHMENT:  Philippine Competition Commission study by ASPSI